Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. Cohesiveness, or the desire for cohesiveness, in a group may produce a tendency among its members to agree at all costs. Groupthink is a construct of social psychology , but has an extensive reach and influences literature in the fields of communication studies , political science , management , and organizational theory ,  as well as important aspects of deviant religious cult behaviour. Groupthink is sometimes stated to occur more broadly within natural groups within the community, for example to explain the lifelong different mindsets of those with differing political views such as " conservatism " and " liberalism " in the U. The term was coined in by William H. Whyte Jr.
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Splitting also called black-and-white thinking or all-or-nothing thinking is the failure in a person's thinking to bring together the dichotomy of both positive and negative qualities of the self and others into a cohesive, realistic whole. It is a common defense mechanism. Splitting was first described by Ronald Fairbairn in his formulation of object relations theory ;  it begins as the inability of the infant to combine the fulfilling aspects of the parents the good object and their unresponsive aspects the unsatisfying object into the same individuals, instead seeing the good and bad as separate. In psychoanalytic theory this functions as a defense mechanism. Splitting creates instability in relationships because one person can be viewed as either personified virtue or personified vice at different times, depending on whether they gratify the subject's needs or frustrate them.
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric diagnosis characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis. Besides observed behavior, doctors will also take a history that includes the person's reported experiences, and reports of others familiar with the person, when making a diagnosis. About 0.
This model is used to understand that each person has four quadrants when it comes to the process of thinking, communicating, and decision making. In this Ultimate Guide to the HBDI psychometric tool, we will deliver answers and understanding to the following you can jump to sections with these links below :. The HBDI is a psychometric assessment, or test, that shows how you prefer to think. It highlights the fact that each of us is different and, therefore, thinks in different ways. It does this by dividing the brain into four quadrants, analytical, practical, relational, and experimental.